The NTA has released the syllabus for IIT JEE Mains 2022. Keeping a consistent eye on the syllabus is very helpful for the quality preparation of the exam. The syllabus for IIT JEE Mains act as roadway to JEE Advance or IIT. Syllabus for IIT JEE Mains helps aspirants to skip or stick to topics as well as it allows filtration of topics. The Syllabus for IIT JEE Mains & Advance helps aspirants in recognizing the weightage of the topics. Syllabus for IIT JEE Mains also let them know how much time is to given to a topic.
Let us see syllabus for IIT JEE Mains of Chemistry
Matter and its nature. Dalton’s atomic theory: Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound. Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision as well as accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, and also dimensional analysis. Laws of chemical combination: Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical as well as molecular formulae. Chemical equations and also stoichiometry.
Classification of matter into solid, liquid as well as gaseous states.
Measurable properties of gases. Gas laws – Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, and also Dalton’s law of partial pressure. Concept of Absolute scale of temperature. Ideal gas equation. Kinetic theory of gases (however only postulates). Concept of average, root mean square and also the most probable velocities. Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor as well as van der Waals equation.
Properties of liquids – vapor pressure, viscosity as well as surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent as well as metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids. Bragg’s Law as well as its applications. Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids, voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, and also imperfection in solids. Electrical and also magnetic properties.
Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and also their limitations. Nature of electromagnetic radiation, and also photoelectric effect. Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom – its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, as well as limitations of Bohr’s model. Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features. Concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation of t|/ and \|/2 with r for Is and 2s orbitals. various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and also their significance; shapes of s, p and d – orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals – aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and also completely filled orbitals.
Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic as well as covalent bonds.
Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules.
Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding:
Valence bond theory – Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance.
Molecular Orbital Theory – Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and also bond energy.
Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding as well as its applications.
Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, and also types of processes.
First law of thermodynamics – Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess’s law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and also solution.
Second law of thermodynamics: Spontaneity of processes; AS of the universe and AG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, AG” (Standard Gibbs energy change) and also equilibrium constant.
Different methods for expressing concentration of solution – molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapor pressure of solutions and Rault’s Law – Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapor pressure – composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions – relative lowering of vapor pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point as well as osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, Vant Hoff factor and also its significance.
Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid -liquid, liquid – gas and solid – gas equilibria, Henry’s law, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and also their significance, significance of AG and AG” in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Also, Le Chatelier’s principle.
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted – Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid – base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and also solubility products, buffer solutions.
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, and also balancing of redox reactions.
Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, molar conductivities and also their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch’s law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells – Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half – cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell as well as its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy change. Dry cell as well as lead accumulator. And also Fuel cells.
Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order as well as molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half -lives, effect of temperature on the rate of reactions -Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).
Adsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids – Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
Catalysis – Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and also selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.
Colloidal state- distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids -lyophilic, lyophobic; multimolecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids – Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and also flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.
Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and also chemical reactivity.
Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of metals -concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe. Thermodynamic and also electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties as well as uses of hydrogen; Physical and also chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions as well as uses of hydrogen peroxide; Classification of hydrides – ionic, covalent and also interstitial; Hydrogen as a fuel.
Group -1 and 2 Elements- General introduction, electronic configuration and also general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds – sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide and also sodium hydrogen carbonate. Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and also of cement. Biological significance of Na, K, Mg as well as Ca.
Group -13 to Group 18 Elements- General Introduction: Electronic configurations and general trends in physical as well as chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behavior of the first element in each group.
Group wise study of the p – block elements Group -13- Preparation, properties and uses of boron and also of Aluminium. Structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, Aluminium chloride as well as alums.
Group -14- Tendency for catenation; Structure, properties and uses of Allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites as well as silicones.
Group -15- Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotropic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PC13, PCI,); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen as well as phosphorus.
Group -16 Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of Sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of Sulphuric acid (also including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of Sulphur.
Group -17- Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and also oxoacids of halogens.
Group-18- Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides as well as oxides of xenon.
Transition Elements- General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and also characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements -physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties as well as uses of K2 Cr, 07 and Kmn04.
Inner Transition Elements
Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and also lanthanide contraction.
Actinides – Electronic configuration as well as oxidation states.
Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Werner’s theory; ligands, co-ordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence bond approach and also basic ideas of Crystal field theory, color and magnetic properties; Importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).
Environmental pollution – Atmospheric, water as well as soil.
Atmospheric pollution – Tropospheric and also Stratospheric
Tropospheric pollutants – Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and also sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain;
Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects as well as its prevention.
Stratospheric pollution- Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer – its mechanism as well as effects.
Water Pollution – Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.
Soil pollution – Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention.
Strategies to control environmental pollution.
Purification – Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles as well as their applications.
Qualitative analysis – Detection of nitrogen, Sulphur, phosphorus and also halogens.
Quantitative analysis (basic principles only)- Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, Sulphur, as well as of phosphorus.
Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.
Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules -hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism – structural and also stereoisomerism.
Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)- Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles as well as nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond
Common types of organic reactions- Substitution, addition, elimination and also its rearrangement.
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties as well as reactions.
Alkanes – Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff s and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis and also polymerization.
Alkynes – Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.
Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, benzene -structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, as well as directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene.
General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions.
Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform freons and also DDT.
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS
Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.
Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reitner – Tiemann reaction.
Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition to >C=0 group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as – Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH, and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of a-hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction;
Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
Carboxylic Acids- Acidic strength and factors affecting it.
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and also its uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines as well as their basic character.
Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization-addition and also condensation, copolymerization;
Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon, polyester as well as Bakelite.
General introduction and importance of biomolecules.
Carbohydrates – Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose and also maltose).
Proteins – Elementary Idea of a-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
Vitamins – Classification as well as functions.
Nucleic Acids – Chemical constitution of DNA as well as RNA.
Biological functions of nucleic acids.
Chemicals in medicines – Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamine – their meaning and also common examples.
Chemicals in food – Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents – also common examples.
Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents, as well as cleansing action.
Detection of extra elements (N,S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
• Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following:
Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt, potash alum. Organic compounds: Acetanilide, p nitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, and also iodoform.
•Chemistry involved in the titrimetric exercises -Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO,, Mohr’s salt vs KMnO,.
•Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis:
Cations – Pb2+, Cu!+, Af,+, Fe1+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+,
Anions- CO,”, S2~, SO4″, NO”, NO~2, Cf, Br”, I” . (Insoluble salts excluded).
•Chemical principles involved in the following experiments:
1. Enthalpy of solution of CuS04
2. Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and also strong base.
3. Preparation of lyophilic as well as lyophobic sols.
4. Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.
Here ends the syllabus for IIT JEE Mains.
After syllabus for IIT JEE Mains, now let us have a look over IIT JEE Advanced Syllabus.
Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation.
Deviation from ideality, van der Waals equation.
Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities as well as their relation with temperature.
Law of partial pressures.
Diffusion of gases.
Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers.
Wave-particle duality, and also de Broglie hypothesis.
Qualitative quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p as well as d orbitals.
Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36).
Pauli’s exclusion principle also Hund’s rule.
Orbital overlap as well as covalent bond.
Hybridization involving s, p, as well as d orbitals only.
Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species.
Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only).
VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral and also octahedral).
First law of thermodynamics
Internal energy, work and also heat, pressure-volume work
Enthalpy, Hess’s law
Heat of reaction, fusion as well as vapourization
Second law of thermodynamics
Criterion of spontaneity.
Law of mass action
Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle (effect of concentration, temperature and pressure)
Significance of ΔG and ΔG0 in chemical equilibrium
Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and also buffer solutions
Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts)
Hydrolysis of salts.
Electrochemical cells and cell reactions
Standard electrode potentials
Nernst equation and its relation to ΔG
Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells
Faraday’s laws of electrolysis
Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent as well as molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s law
Rates of chemical reactions
Order of reactions
First order reactions
Temperature dependence of the rate constant (Arrhenius equation).
Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, α, β, γ), close-packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices
Nearest neighbors, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds, point defects.
Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapor pressure, elevation of boiling point and also depression of freezing point.
Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms)
Colloids: types, methods of preparation and also general properties
Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants, and micelles (only definitions as well as examples).
Isotopes and isobars
Properties of α, β and γ rays
Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating
Stability of nuclei with respect to proton neutron ratio
Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions.
Boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur and halogens
Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite), phosphorus and Sulphur.
Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium
Boron: diborane, boric acid and borax
Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums
Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid)
Silicon: silicones, silicates and also silicon carbide
Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia
Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphine
Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide
Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate
Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder
Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment
Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cistrans and ionization isomerism, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral).
Oxides and chlorides of tin and lead
Oxides, chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+
Potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, silver oxide, silver nitrate, silver thiosulphate.
Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron, copper, tin, lead, magnesium, aluminium,
zinc and silver.
Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded)
Carbon reduction method (iron and tin)
Self reduction method (copper and lead)
Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium)
Cyanide process (silver and gold).
Groups I to V (only Ag+ , Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+)
Nitrate, halides (excluding fluoride), Sulphate and Sulphide.
Homologous series, physical properties of alkanes (melting points, boiling points and density)
Combustion and halogenation of alkanes
Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions.
Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points, density and dipole moments)
Acidity of alkynes
Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination)
Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone
Reduction of alkenes and alkynes; Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions
Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX and H2O (X=halogen)
Addition reactions of alkynes; Metal acetylides.
Structure and aromaticity
Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation
Effect of o-, m- and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes.
Acidity, electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration and sulphonation)
Reimer-Tieman reaction, Kolbe reaction.
Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard reactions, nucleophilic substitution reactions
Alcohols: esterification, dehydration and oxidation, reaction with sodium, phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/concentrated HCl, conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones
Ethers: Preparation by Williamson’s Synthesis
Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation, reduction, oxime and hydrazone formation
Aldol condensation, Perkin reaction
Haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition)
Carboxylic acids: formation of esters, acid chlorides and amides, ester hydrolysis
Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines, preparation from nitro compounds, reaction with nitrous acid, azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines, Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts; carbylamine reaction
Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution).
Mono- and di-saccharides (glucose as well as sucrose)
Oxidation, reduction, glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose.
General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties.
Detection of elements (N, S, halogens)
Detection and identification of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl, amino and nitro
Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures.
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